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Book Of The Dead in Ancient Egyptian

BOOK OF THE DEAD an illustrated papyrus scroll placed in the tomb as a guidebook for the deceased during his perilous journey through the NETHERWORLD The Book of the Dead is a composite of ancient Egypt's oldest and most important religious texts. Some of the writings come from Egypt's Pre-dynastic period and were 4,000 years old during the time of Jesus. The Book of the Dead is not a book as we know it but consists of rolls of papyrus that contain a collection of spells, incantations, prayers, hymns, and rituals that were written by the priests over Egypt's long history. The various copies of the Book of the Dead contain about 200 different spells that have been given chapter numbers so that, for example, any spell dealing with the heart not opposing the deceased would be found in Chapter 30.

The Book of the Dead evolved from the PYRAMID TEXTS and COFFIN TEXTS. While the Pyramid Texts were magical spells for the pharaohs only, the Coffin Texts could be used by anyone who could afford to have a coffin carved or painted with magical inscriptions. Eventually, there were too many spells to fit on the coffin, and the Book of the Dead was the answer to the problem. Now all of the magical spells could accompany the deceased, for they could be written on papyrus and placed in the tomb with the mummy.

Scribes filled papyrus rolls with spells for protection as well as for instructions on how to behave and how to make the bodywork again in the next world. Generally, the Book of the Dead had four sections:

  1. how to protect the body in the tomb.
  2. how to make the journey to the Netherworld.
  3. how to pass the judgment of the gods.
  4. how to exist in the next world, after having been accepted by the gods.

The Book of the Dead

About 200 different spells or chapters appear in the Book of the Dead, but they appear in no fixed order. Books are written in the north or the south of Egypt had a particular style. The actual title of the Book of the Dead is The going fourth by day, which might refer to the deceased going forth to the Netherworld. The Egyptians were fearful of the night, and it would have been considered an advantage to make the journey during the day. Whatever the title meant, it undoubtedly was a reference to death. The ancient Egyptians did not mention death directly but instead had many euphemisms or names for death and the deceased. For example, because the west bank of the Nile was associated with death (the sun died there every day, and the dead were buried in cemeteries on the west side), if someone died, it was said that he went west. The dead were called Westerners or True of Voice.

Many of the Theban versions of the Book of the Dead contain hymns to the gods, especially to OSIRIS the god of the dead. An abbreviated example of the hymn to Osiris, from the papyrus of Ani (a scribe in the Eighteenth Dynasty), reads:

Adoration of Re when he appears on the eastern horizon of the Sky.

Behold, Osiris, the scribe of the divine offerings of all the gods, Ani. He says, praise to thee who has come as Khepera, the god of existence who is the creator of the gods . . . May he gives pleasure and power as one who is dead. The living soul [of Ani] goes forth to see Horus of the two horizons, the soul of Osiris, the scribe of Ani, true of voice before Osiris.

This hymn of praise to Osiris mentions two important features of the deceased: the BA, which has been translated as soul, and the KA, which was a kind of spiritual double. The Egyptians believed a person had five different elements: the physical body, the shadow, the name, and, most important, the ba the ka ba was represented as a bird with the head of the deceased, and it seemed to come into separate existence only after the person died. The ba was essential for the deceased's existence in the Netherworld.

An excerpt from the Book of the Dead. (Photograph by Manfred Werner)

The ka was a kind of abstract double of the deceased that needed a place to live. Its first choice was the corpse, but in case the body was damaged or destroyed, many Egyptians were buried with one or more ka statues carved in their likeness so the ka could dwell within the statue.

The Egyptians were almost encyclopedic in their concern with the various parts of the body. The Book of the Dead seems to have been written by priests who drew up a list of every body part that would be needed in the next world and then created a spell to protect it, as in the following examples:

The Chapter of Not Permitting the Head of a Man to Be Cut Off in the Netherworld.

I am the great one, son of the great one. I am fire, son of fire, whose head was given to him after it was cut off. His head shall not be taken away from him

When the Book of the Dead first appeared in the New Kingdom, it was considered essential to anyone seeking immortality by resurrecting in the Nether- world. This belief in the Book of the Dead continued well into the period of the Greek occupation of Egypt. The texts themselves remained virtually unchanged for more than a thousand years. No doubt many who purchased copies of the Book of the Dead could not read them, but that was not of great concern. Having the magical words that would guide them safely to the Netherworld was the important thing.

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Egypt has many historical sites that you can visit and enjoy. Each tour is different and unique. If you go on a Nile cruise, you can visit Abu Simbel, Aswan, and Luxor in the South and enjoy the temples, tombs, and the treasures of the Nile. In the North, enjoy the Pyramids of Giza, The Egyptian Museum, Sakkara. Mosques, churches in Cairo, and many landmarks located in the city of Alexandria. On the East, Enjoy a beach tour for diving, snorkeling, and swimming in the Red sea. Every city has its charm, history, and flavor where you can do many tours and activities.

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It usually varies according to the type of tourist trip in Egypt, but the average cost for spending one week in Egypt is 1600 USD including visiting alot of tombs and temples and sailing on a 4 or 5 stars Nile cruise.

Don't drink the tap water - it is highly chlorinated. However, with enough time in Egypt, you could potentially grow accustomed to the water. This doesn't mean that the tap water is polluted, it simply means that you are not used to it, and you might get stomach problems. This happened to most people when they visit a country for the first time. They were simply not used to water there. It's a similar situation here. It is advisable to drink Bottled water during your entire holiday. That is why it is strongly advisable that you don't drink the tap water, and use it only for washing and brushing your teeth.

Enjoy Egypt Tours From September until March. It is the perfect time when the weather is good and mild. From September until mid-November, when it is very nice and the temperatures are pleasant for all activities - around 25 C to 15 C. mid-Nov until the end of February is wintertime when temperatures during the day are around 12 or 15 C, and at night can drop to about 7 or 8 C. In March and April, the weather is still so nice and travelers can enjoy the Easter vacation. From May to September is the summer season. Spending summertime in a desert climate does not appeal to most travelers. Average daytime temperatures hover in the high 80s and low to mid-90s, although they can jump up into three digits in the South as in Luxor and Aswan. Summer is really hot here, prices go down and it is a good chance for travelers with a tight budget.

It is usually hot and sunny. winter falls between November and January, and the peak of the summer months is between June and August. Winters are generally mild, although temperatures can fall below 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 degrees Celsius) at night. In the Western Desert. Cairo and areas of the Nile Delta may experience a few rainy days during winter. Summers can be unbearably hot, especially in the desert and other areas of the country's interior. In Cairo, average summer temperatures regularly exceed 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius), while the record high for Luxor and Aswan, popular tourist destinations on the banks of the River Nile, is 110 degrees Fahrenheit (45 degrees Celsius).

Safety and security are our first and foremost concerns! Egypt is a very safe country with a low crime rate. Now with the coronavirus outbreak, accommodations and sightseeing nationwide have finalized sterilization and disinfection in light of the Egyptian government's efforts to implement precautionary measures against the COVID-19. In addition, our company has followed the same procedures to make all our staff, guides, and drivers are well-trained with the current events to prevent and stop the spread of this outbreak. Traveling the world is a joyful experience and we want to do our part to keep the anticipation stress-free.

There are many things to do in Egypt during your visit depending on your interests and character. Cairo, Alexandria, Luxor, and Aswan Nile cruise must be your first priority if you are a history and culture lover. You must visit the pyramids of Giza, enjoy a Nile cruise between Luxor and Aswan and enjoy visiting the most important tourist attractions in Luxor and Aswan. You can visit the city of Hurghada, Marsa Alam, or Sharm el-Sheikh Red Sea for relaxation and enjoy many activities there such as diving, snorkeling, sunbathing, or swimming. You may like to go on a safari trip in the western desert if you are an adventurer. Many other activities are available in every single Egyptian city

The high season for tourism is all year with winter and spring being peak season for cultural travels with lots of sightseeing. Weather in Egypt is perfect for many kinds of tourism, and if coming in June, July, and August, head for the seaside resorts. Those months are very warm with temperatures that can reach around 45C. and the humidity is about 70 to 80%, but it is bearable with the sea and large swimming pools nearby. So the period of the high summer season is also a bit busy as hotels fill up with tourists from all over the world looking for a bargain, lots of sunshine, diving, snorkeling, etc. It is also a primary vacation time in Europe. If you come in the deep summer season you can still enjoy it because you can always sightsee early in the morning and go again at night when the sunsets. You will definitely need good sunscreen and a lot of liquids to drink with a nice hat on your head. Summer is a good time for people looking for good rates in accommodation and other services.

Egypt is a Muslim country and the dress code is towards the conservative side, especially for women. That being said, we are used to seeing travelers from all over the world. My suggestion would be to wear light clothes and not to wear short shorts, short skirts and alike to avoid the occasional unwanted stare. But it's really up to you. When you visit religious places (synagogues, churches, and mosques) you do need to cover your shoulders and wear over the knee dresses, if you are planning to wear one of course. If you plan to attend the Nile dinner cruise, there is no need for formal wear unless you want to make that night a special night! Also, you will be sharing this experience with other travelers so you can dress however you feel most comfortable.

You can get your visa when you arrive at Cairo Airport. It is an easy process for USA, UK, Canadian, Australian and European citizens. The visa is simply a stamp (like a mail or postage stamp) that you buy from the visa office, at the port of entry just before the immigration booth. The visa will cost you $25 US Dollars and after buying it; you just stick it on any empty page on your passport. Once you have bought your visa you then stand in line to get your passport stamped by the immigration officer. You can also apply for E-Visa via the official electronic visa portal:

Your Egypt Tours travel agency recommends two weeks so that you can enjoy the temples and tombs of Luxor and Aswan, explore the sights of Cairo, and relax in the Red Sea islands and nature reserves.

There are many Nile cruises. Not to name one but your choice depends on many things to put in mind such as the number of nights you want to spend on the cruiser, your budget, and the standard of the Nile cruise. We recommend you choose a 5-star luxury Nile cruise, and if you are looking for a private Nile River cruise you can choose Dahabiya cruises, it is only for the small-group tour, about 15 people. Most cruises have. There is another way of cruising the Nile, which is the Felucca boat. It is traditional and charming but it is cheap as long as it will be ok to sleep on the deck exposed to mosquitos and most of these boats do not have a toilet

The best time to visit Egypt is generally from October to April where it is suitable for outdoor activities and sightseeing.

Egypt travel usually have guided tours to archaeological sites, museums, and historical landmarks. Also have optional activities may include hot air balloon rides over Luxor, snorkeling in the Red Sea, or desert safaris.

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